at the International Motor Show in Berlin on 17 February 1939. The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. Wehrmacht troops also participated directly in the Holocaust by shooting civilians or committing genocide under the guise of anti-partisan operations. New York: Da Capo Press. Mobilizing Women for War: German and American Propaganda. Another civilian resistance group, the Kreisau Circle, had some connections with the military conspirators, and many of its members were arrested after the failed 20 July plot. In 1931, Himmler organised an SS intelligence service which became known as the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service) under his deputy, Heydrich. The German Red Cross still maintains that the death toll from the expulsions.2 million. As was the case with other art forms, the Nazis ostracised musicians who were deemed racially unacceptable and for the most part disapproved of music that was too modern or atonal. Soviet forces continued to push westward after the failed German offensive at the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943. Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte (in German). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Political courts called Sondergerichte sentenced some 12,000 members of the German resistance to death, and civil courts sentenced an additional 40,000 Germans. Germany between 19, when, adolf Hitler and his, nazi Party (nsdap) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Himmler ordered their deportation from Germany in December 1942, with few exceptions. Pine, Lisa (2011) 2010. Politics Ideology Further information: Nazism The nsdap was a far-right political party which arose during the social and financial upheavals that occurred following the end of World War. Narben bleiben: die Arbeit der Suchdienste 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. In Brüggemeier, Franz-Josef; Cioc, Mark; Zeller, Thomas (eds.). Evans states that most German citizens disapproved of the genocide. By 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, Argentina, Great Britain, Palestine, and other countries. Archived from the original on Retrieved Dönitz, Karl (2012) 1958. The plan also included the kidnapping of children deemed to have Aryan- Nordic traits, who were presumed to be of German descent. Authors of books left the country in droves and some wrote material critical of the regime while in exile.